In the Global version of Tales of Link, types will often dictate how a unit's stats will be distributed. Japan's version does not allude to these standards, which is why some units that are brought over to the Global version are referred to as "unadjusted" because their stats will be distributed more evenly than in the Global version.
Units in Global generally have the distribution as follows with the exception of a few units (Ares Realm Units, Soul Arena units, some event units, and others):
Slash units are the most heavy hitting of all the types, boasting the highest attack, but low health and low recovery in addition to their low LC count of 4. Typically, they used for their damage.
Thrust units have average damage, above average health, average recovery, and a LC count of 6. These units have many uses because of their nearly even distribution, but may be used more for health and recovery in place of spell or bash type units.
Shot units have above average attack, average health, average recovery, and a LC count of 3. Like thrust units, they have many uses because of their nearly even distribution, but may be used more for damage in place of slash type units.
Bash units boast the highest health of all the types at the cost of having nearly no recovery, and average attack with a LC count of 15. They are the "tanks" of the game, providing the extra LC and health needed to survive enemy attacks.
Spell units have the highest recovery of the game, but little health and average attack, in addition to a LC count of 12. These units give a slight edge of LC over most of the other unit types and provide access to higher health recovery when used on a heart tile.